Education in Afghanistan has a very long history, prior to the twentieth centraditional education and training for Afghan children and young people were provided at home, in the mosques, in religious centers and through infor apprenticeship and on the job training. Modern education in Afghanistan began in the early 1900s and developed in the 1920s, following independence in 1919.
The establishment of the Transitional Government of Afghanistan in 2001 brought new opportunities and challenges for educational development in the country. The new Constitution of Afghanistan, which was adopted in 2004, stipulates that nine years of basic education will be compulsory for all Afghan children (boys and girls) bethe ages of six and fifteen years old. Secondary, technical and vocational education and higher education will be expanded. Education in State schools and institutions will be free up to university level. Special reference is made to elimination of illiteracy and promotion of education for women.
Between 2002 and 2012, enrollment in general education increased from 2.3 million to 8.6 million including 3.2 million female students (38%). Enrollin higher education during this period increased from 31,200 students to 101,000 including 19,200 female students (19%) which is a considerable growth of general education and higher education in the period of 2002-2012.
The rate of growth for male and female students in general educais about the same; however, the rate of growth for female students in higher education is slower; however, Since 2002 the profile of education in Afghanistan has changed: significant expansion of all levels and types of education; increased access and educational opportunities for all Afghans, especially girls and women; participaof the private sector in educational development.